What is a Molecule?

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A molecule is a group of two or more atoms bonded together tightly. The type of substance a molecule makes depends on the types of atoms that are joined together. For example, two oxygen atoms joined together to form carbon dioxide, and two hydrogen atoms joined together to form water.

Molecular structure

The molecular structure is the three-dimensional arrangement of constituent molecules in a biological system. Determining this structure depends on a set of techniques that differ in complexity and resolution. These techniques include x-ray diffraction and electron and neutron diffraction of solid samples. Another method, called nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, can determine the structure of small proteins and nucleic acids in a liquid solution.

Molecular weight

The molecular weight of a substance is its total mass divided by the number of atoms in the molecule. It is an important factor in determining the size of a substance. A molecule can be defined as a single atom, a compound, or an entire system.

Molecular composition

Many techniques can determine the molecular composition of organic materials. Most of them require extraction and concentration of the sample. However, a method called 13C nuclear magnetic resonance analysis (NMR) does not require concentration and extraction. However, it only provides limited information about the molecule’s composition. Using this method, researchers studied 46 organic materials.

Molecular structure of a protein

A protein is made up of monomers called amino acids. Each amino acid has a common structure. They all have one central carbon atom (the alpha carbon). In addition, they all have one or more hydrogen bonds between their carbonyl group and an oxygen atom four amino acids further along.

Molecular structure of a pentacene

Pentacene is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon containing five linearly fused benzene rings. This compound is highly conjugated, strongly organic semiconductor, and highly sensitive to oxidation. It has various uses in chemistry, medicine, and electronics.

Molecular structure of a catena

Catenanes are a class of molecules with mechanically interlocked rings. They differ from rotaxanes, which contain bulky stoppers at both ends. Catenanes have two or three interlocked rings.

Molecular structure of rotaxane

The molecule is a hydrocarbon and can undergo several chemical reactions. When exposed to an acidic environment, it undergoes oxidation, and when exposed to a basic environment, it undergoes reduction. During this process, the ring component is displaced. This process is known as the shuttling process, and it can be monitored using 1H NMR spectroscopy and electrochemical methods.

Molecular structure of pentacene

Pentacene is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH). It is a highly conjugated compound that consists of five linearly fused benzene rings. It is also an organic semiconductor and generates excitons upon absorption of light. Despite its highly conjugated structure, pentacene is highly reactive to oxidation.

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