A COBOL tutorial can help you understand and apply the language in your program. COBOL, Common Business Oriented Language, is a programming language developed by the US Department of Defense to write application programs. Its primary use is in applications requiring large amounts of data processing. A COBOL tutorial is designed to teach computer programmers the basic syntax and terminology of COBOL, and assumes that the student has some basic computer programming knowledge.
Hierarchical structure of a COBOL program
The Hierarchical structure of a COBAL program comprises several components, the topmost of which is the program text. This text is divided into various sections containing statements and paragraphs. Each section has a starting line, a name, and an end line, which marks the end of the current division. The program text at the end of a COBOL program is called the program’s end line.
The data in a COBOL program is divided into divisions that specify the source element, classes, interfaces, environment, and system features. A program can also specify variables and parameters in each division. The program text is then divided into paragraphs and sections, which are further subdivided into further paragraphs.
When writing COBOL programs, you should use English-like syntax when naming them. This makes it possible to describe almost everything in a program. For example, you can express a condition in COBOL as “x > y.” You can even use the asterisk to indicate a particular case. Similarly, you can use the arithmetic operator to express a condition.
A COPY statement is a particular type of substitution statement in COBOL. It allows you to change a single word in a program by changing its context. You can use the COPY statement to replace the same word in more than one place. For example, if you want to change the value of a single variable in a database, you would use the COPY statement.
A COPY statement uses the keyword COPY in COBOL. You write a piece of code, such as a string or a variable, and then copy it to a new file. In this way, you can reuse it without rewriting the entire code. You can use it to replace any one word in a variable, or it can replace an entire line of text.
You can use a COPY statement in any program’s DATA DIVISION. When you use this statement, use colons instead of parentheses because this will clarify the program.
A Cobol tutorial is divided into sections. Each section has a purpose, such as processing data or presenting the information. The COBOL language uses structs to describe data structures. Each struct contains one or more PARAGRAPHs, SENTENCES, and data.
The first section covers the essential components of COBOL programs. This includes learning the syntax diagram notation and the COBOL coding rules. It also explores the structure of COBOL programs. COBOL is one of the oldest programming languages, so it has some quirks.
The second section explains the identifier. The name of each section must match the identifier in the source program. It must also start with a period and space. Each section must have a unique logical function. When defining an external data set, a COBOL program needs to be able to use that data for transmission, input, or output.
COBOL programs must contain a PROGRAM-ID clause. The program’s name will be used in the CALL statement or in the linker. The identifier will be used to transfer control from one division to another. In COBOL, the PROGRAM-ID clause must be specified after the IDENTIFICATION DIVISION keyword, indicating the program text’s start. The name of the program must comply with user-defined name rules. Lastly, the environment in which the COBOL program is run must be described in the ENVIRONMENT DIVISION.
Picture-based data descriptions
COBOL supports picture-based data descriptions for a variety of purposes. This feature allows users to specify data using the most straightforward language possible. The currency symbol ($) is an example of a data description. The COBOL language provides multiple formats for writing values. Using the picture clause in COBOL is useful, allowing users to specify the value’s width and type. To use picture-based data descriptions in COBOL, you must first understand how the language works.
A picture-based data description in COBOL helps programmers to avoid using too much text in their program. This feature can be especially useful in complex systems with many functions. In addition to picture-based data descriptions, COBOL provides features to allow users to store, retrieve, and sort data.